10% is an obligation- Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective from Chabad.org :) new year!

By Nochum Mangel ->@click here for the visual class 2012

Give Life. Get Life

The modern government, whether of a city, state or country, uses its authority to tax its consƟtuents for money which it plans to
spend on such things as defense and security, public works and
social services. Much of the poliƟcal baƩles during the coming
campaign, as in most campaigns, revolve around how much and
in what way to tax and for which purposes and in what amounts
to disburse the money collected.
How did Jewish communiƟes understand their role in furthering
the welfare of the people? In what way do Jewish law and values
arƟculate the problems so that we can think about them well
and thoughƞully proceed with effecƟve and ethical acƟons that
will achieve a well-understood and well-conceived goal?
Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

I. Tsedaka versus Charity
Opening Discussion Point:
Define the difference between charitable donaƟon and taxaƟon.
Text 1
The Hebrew for “charity” is not tsedaka but chessed…These two
words have opposite meanings.
Chessed, charity, implies that the recipient has no right to the giŌ
and that the donor is under no obligaƟon to give it. He gives it
gratuitously, from the goodness of his heart. His act is a virtue
rather than a duty.
On the other hand tsedaka means righteousness or jusƟce. The
implicaƟon is that the donor gives because it is his duty. For, firstly, everything in the world belongs ulƟmately to G-d. A man’s
possessions are not his by right. Rather, they are entrusted to
him by G-d, and one of the condiƟons of that trust is that he
should give to those who are in need.
Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, “Teshuva, Tefilla and Tsedakah
Exercise: Where do we find menƟon of taxaƟon in Torah? State
the instances that come to your mind.
II. Too Taxing?
Text 2
And they placed sarei misim [taskmasters] over them…and they
built storage-ciƟes for Pharaoh.
Exodus 1:11 Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

Text 3
And Samuel related all the words of the Lord to the people who
asked of him a king.
And he said, “This will be the manner of the king who will reign
over you; he will take your sons, and appoint them to him for his
chariots and for his horsemen, and they will run before his chariots. And he will appoint them as his commanders of thousands
and commanders of fiŌies, and to plow his plowing and to reap
his harvest, and to make his weapons and the equipment for his
I Samuel 8:10-17
Text 4
He was in charge of raising taxes from Israel when they were
needed to give to the soldiers or to execute [the king’s] policies.
For that is the law for kings… and as the rabbis of blessed
memory said: “It is permissible to tax them.”
Rabbi David Kimchi (Radak), commentary on 2 Samuel 20:24
Text 5
If there will be among you a poor person – one of your brothers,
in one of your towns, in the land that G-d your G-d is giving you
– do not harden your heart and do not Ɵghten your hand against
your poor brother. Rather, you should open your hand to him
emphaƟcally and be sure to give him enough for all he lacks.
Deuteronomy 15:7-8
Discussion: Compare this verse to the previous verses speaking
of taxes. What differences stand out? (Where did the funds go
that were raised by these by these taxes?) Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

Where do we find the laws?
How does this system differ from the way a modern democracy
raises funds for its infrastructure, defense and social needs?
What might be the advantages of a levy system in our age of
governmental austerity? What might be its disadvantages?
III – Tsedaka and Social Services
A. Who gives?
Text 6
Everyone is required to give tsedaka. Even a poor man supported
by tzedaka is required to give from what is given him.
Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De’ah 248:2
Discussion quesƟons: Do our government policies and societal
norms stress this idea of everyone needing to give? Is it found
in our tax structure? Is it found in any area of our naƟonal life?
Could our policies be improved?
Maimonides’ law code Shulchan Aruch

B. How much?
Text 7
It is a posiƟve commandment to give tzedaka according to one’s
means… Whoever gives less than is proper may be forced by the
court…unƟl he gives what they assess of him.
Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De’ah 248:1, 2
Text 8
The amount one must give: If one has the means, one gives as
much as the poor need. If one does not have means sufficient for
that, the opƟmal way of performing the mitzvah is by giving one-
fiŌh of one’s possessions. A standard donaƟon would be onetenth; giving less than that is considered sƟngy.
Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De’ah 249:1
Text 9
Every city in which thirty Jews dwell is required to appoint wellknown and reliable people as tsedaka wardens. Their funcƟon
will be to go around among the people from the eve of Shabbat
to eve of Shabbat and collect from each one the proper amount
of his assessment. They then distribute the money from eve of
Shabbat to eve of Shabbat, giving to each food that will suffice
for a week. This is called the kupa.
Maimonides, Laws of GiŌs to the Poor, 9:4
C. To Whom?
Text 10
Tamchui—food collected from the community—is distributed to
the poor daily. Kupa – money for the poor —is distributed on Fridays for the whole week. The tamchui was available to any poor
person, while the kupa funds were available only to the poor of Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

that city. City authoriƟes have the flexibility to transfer from one
fund to another or to any purpose they see fit.
Baba Batra 8a
Text 11
Whoever has food enough for two meals may not take from the
tamchui. Whoever has food enough for fourteen meals may not
take from the kupa. Whoever has 200 zuz and is not using them
in a business, or if he has fiŌy zuz with which he is doing business
may not take any tsadaka.
Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De’ah 253:1
Text 12
There are those who say that these sums listed as eligibility requirements were said only for their day, but that today, someone
can take unƟl he has enough for a sum [which he can invest in a
business] and sustain his household from the profits. This is a persuasive posiƟon.
Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De’ah 253:2
Text 13
It is elementary that someone who has a steady wage from
which he can sustain himself comfortably may not take tsedaka.
However, today, even someone with a steady wage sufficient to
sustain himself will not find it enough to buy or rent an apartment in Israel – they are only possible to get at a high price. Accordingly, such a person could be considered poor with respect to
housing and be permiƩed to take from tsedaka – he lacks today’s
equivalent of 200 zuz. All is in accordance with the situaƟon, as
halachic decisors have made clear.
Rabbi Shlomo Halevi Woszner, Responsa Sheivet Levi 2:125 Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

SOURCE: Federal Register, Vol. 76, No. 13, January 20, 2011, pp. 3637-3638
Should the modern day qualifying figure include all the trappings of 21st
century American life? Which of the following
should have their costs figured into the poverty figures:
A car?
Computer and Internet service?
A cell phone? A smart phone?
Cable TV?
2011 Health and Human Services Poverty Guidelines
in Family

D. The Best Way to Give
Text 14
My teacher and grandfather Maharich, of blessed memory, was
the head of the rabbinical court here. His way was to direct those
in charge of the tsedaka fund that whenever they wished to put
someone on the list of tsedaka recipients, they were to invesƟ-
gate if that person was able to do some kind of work or business.
If so, he was to say to him that he would give him a lump sum to
invest in his work or his business and so make a profit. The poor
person would be able then to derive conƟnuous, ongoing benefit
through the labor of his own hands. The congregaƟon would also
profit by not having to make conƟnuous, ongoing outlays. Many
tried this way and succeeded, and no longer needed the congregaƟon’s funds. All this I heard from my father and teacher Maharshach, of blessed memory.
Examine carefully what our master of blessed memory wrote on
Yoreh De’ah 249:6: “There are eight degrees of charity, one higher than the next. The highest degree, exceeded by none, is
strengthening the hand of a fellow who has become poor and
giving him a present or a loan or making a partnership with him
or making a job for him so that he should be strengthened and
not need others or have to ask for a handout. This is the meaning
of Scripture: ‘You shall strengthen him…’”
It was this superior level of tsedaka that my teacher and grandfather of blessed memory chose. And so it is proper to do, following
in his footsteps, for the good of the poor and for the good of the
congregaƟon, fulfilling the mitzva of tsedaka in the best and
most proper fashion.
Rabbi Moshe Kalaphon Hakohein, Berit Kehuna,
Yoreh De’ah, p. 326 Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

Is the way our funds disbursed important? In what ways might
modern governments implement the values set forth in this
reading? In what way might they improve over simply cuƫng
unemployment checks?
E. SupporƟng Someone Who Won’t Work
Text 15a
Should you see your enemy’s donkey prostrate under its burden
and [think you might] refrain from helping him – you must certainly help him [imo—literally, “with him].
Exodus 22:5
Text 15b
This tells you that if someone wants to be with you in his work
and wants to put it back upright together with you, you are required to help him. But if he sits down and says, “You alone obligated by the Torah to help; it’s your job to do it all” – that is the
reason why the Torah says “refrain from helping him.” You are
permiƩed to refrain from helping if he does not want to join in
the work.
This speaks to a few of our poor fellow Jews who throw themselves on the public and do not want to do any work even if they
are able to work or feed their families in some other way. They
cry, “Foul!” if their needs are not met.
This, however, is not what G-d commanded; He said, “Help
along with him,” “Raise it up along with him.” The poor person
must do all that is within his power and if even that is not
enough to meet all his needs, then every Jew is obligated to support him and to give him all he lacks—“azov ta’azov—even a
hundred Ɵmes.”
Commentary of Keli Yakar on Exodus 22:5
Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

Text 16
The poor man comes up to the rich man and says to him, “Give
me mitzva [tsedaka]!”
The rich man does not give… and he says to that poor man, “Why
don’t you go and exert yourself at some work? Look at your legs!
Look at your belly! Look at your fat flesh!”
The blessed Holy One says, “It wasn’t enough that you didn’t give
him a thing, but you had to put an evil eye on what I gave him?
Therefore…you will not leave over a penny to your son, and you
will cause a defect in yourself.”
Vayikra Rabba 34:4
How do we resolve the differing values taught in these last two
Text 17
If a poor person whom no one knows says, “I am hungry, feed
me!” we do not invesƟgate to see if he is genuine, but rather feed
him immediately.
Maimonides, Laws of the GiŌs to the Poor, 7:6
Text 18
Someone who has a trade and the strength to work and does not
is like a wealthy person who starves himself, and we do not give
him his livelihood. However, it is forbidden to shame him, and it
seems correct to give him a liƩle bit. If however he lacks the psychological stamina to work, we do give him his livelihood.
Rabbi Elchanan ben Yaakov, Ma’asei Hatsedaka, 7:3 Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

The modern government, whether of a city, state or country, uses its authority to tax its consƟtuents for money which it plans to
spend on such things as defense and security, public works and
social services. Much of the poliƟcal baƩles during the coming
campaign, as in most campaigns, revolve around how much and
in what way to tax and for which purposes and in what amounts
to disburse the money collected.
How did Jewish communiƟes understand their role in furthering
the welfare of the people? In what way do Jewish law and values
arƟculate the problems so that we can think about them well
and thoughƞully proceed with effecƟve and ethical acƟons that
will achieve a well-understood and well-conceived goal?
Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
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4 thoughts on “10% is an obligation- Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective from Chabad.org :) new year!

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  2. Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

    Health Care
    Unemployment Benefits
    ocial Security
    Fair Tax
    Income Redistribution
    Tax Cuts
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    School Choice
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    K Street

    Communal Burden Fairly Communal Burden Fairly Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective

    Communal Burden Fairly Communal Burden Fairly
    A complex issue
    Taxation is the most common way for governments through
    the ages to raise their funds. The government uses its power
    to require its citizens to give of their wealth to its coffers.
    Taxation is about providing governments with the funds they
    need to spend. Once we know what things a government
    should provide, it will be much easier to decide what sort of
    taxation there should be and how much.
    The first questions we should ask, then, are: what are the kinds
    of things on which it is legitimate for governments to spend;
    and who is empowered to decide exactly which and how many
    of those things the government should fund? Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    Case Study 1:
    Oakwood, Ohio, and its revenue challenge
    City anticipates $2.6 million budget shortfall in 2013
    Neighborhood meetings to address financial challenge
    By Lance Winkler
    Over the next several months, there will be a series of neighborhood meetings, about forty in all, hosted by individual
    members of the Oakwood Budget Review Committee. These
    meetings are to address a possible $2.6- to $3-million annual
    budget shortfall due to the passage of House Bill 3 that will
    eliminate the estate tax as a source of revenue as of Jan. 1,
    The city anticipates an annual $2.6 million revenue shortfall
    averaged over the next ten years which accounts for about 20
    percent of the money to pay for city services…
    City Manager Norbert Klopsch presented five basic options to
    make up for the shortfall: 1) cut expenses 2) cut services 3)
    raise taxes 4) raise service fees, or 5) an incremental combination of all four.
    Klopsch said there were two objectives for the upcoming
    meetings: 1) To educate our community to the reality of our
    financial situation; 2) To get feedback from the community as
    a whole to arrive at a proper decision in solving the problem.
    Klopsch also announced there will be at least two Town Hall
    meetings slated to take place in late winter or early spring to Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    more fully gauge community input. “Yes, we have a major fi-
    nancial challenge. However, I am confident that we as a community will find a solution that will allow us to maintain our
    comprehensive public services and community ambience,”
    said Klopsch.
    Oakwood Register, Vol. 21 No. 3, January 18, 2012
    Class discussion:
    The class is now at one of those meetings. What would the
    class decide? What principles would they use to make their
    Do you feel that this level of involvement is the norm for our
    national discussion of tax issues? Would it be beneficial if it
    A. Variety and Flexibility
    Text 1
    After looking all around, I do not see that the various communities have one way of setting taxes; this is because their customs in this case do not derive directly from Talmudic rulings.
    Were that the case, there would be only one way of taxing in
    all the congregations, as is the case with the other laws, in
    which the Talmud says, “The residents of the courtyard can
    compel each other…the residents of the city can compel each
    other…” Rather, when it comes to taxes, each congregation is Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    considered to be a partnership of all its members, who can respond to the general demand of the king (for money) according to the ruling of the majority.
    SHuT Rashba, 271
    Text 2
    Tax matters are dependent neither on analogy from or on express Talmudic law, but on the custom of the land… since tax
    laws are part of the law of the land… and the product of many
    different customs.
    SHuT Maharam Rotenberg, 106, 995
    Summary: Greatest authorities from all over the Jewish world
    agree that in Jewish law, there is no one-size-fits-all tax policy.
    Instead, tax law follows local custom.
    B. A Community Can Compel Payment
    Text 3
    We compel him [anyone living in the courtyard] to build a gatehouse and secure entrance to the courtyard…We compel him
    [anyone living in the city] to build a wall, doors and a security
    bar for the city.
    Mishna, Baba Batra 1:4 (7b) with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz in
    brackets Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    Text 4
    Members of a city can compel each other to build the city’s
    walls and bolted gates…to dig cisterns and water channels…
    and [to provide] wages for police and guardsmen.
    Shulchan Aruch, Choshen Mishpat 163:1, 2
    Text 5
    This is the law as well for all the needs of the city… compelling
    each other to contribute.
    Rema on Choshen Mishpat 163:1
    Summary: a city is empowered to decide its own needs and to
    fund projects that will address them. It can compel those who
    disagree to comply with the will of the majority.
    C. Skin in the Game
    Text 6
    All the householders who pay taxes should be assembled and
    all should resolve to say their opinion [i.e., state their opinion
    and cast their vote for it] for the sake for heaven and then follow the majority. If the minority refuses, the majority has the
    power to compel them… One who abstains from giving his
    opinion is ignored and we follow the majority of those who
    Rema, Choshen Mishpat 163:1 Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    Class discussion:
    To apply this principle to the case study of Oakwood, what are
    the advantages of having only taxpayers make decisions on
    these kinds of issues? What are the disadvantages?
    Text 7
    Every state should be so administered and so regulated by law
    that the magistrates cannot possibly make money…For the
    people do not take any great offense at being kept out of government—indeed, they are rather pleased than otherwise at
    having leisure for their private business—but what irritates
    them is to think their rulers are stealing public money; then
    they are doubly annoyed, for they lose both honor and profit…
    In democracies the rich should be spared; not only should their
    property not be divided, but their incomes also, which in some
    states are taken from them imperceptibly, should be protected…In an oligarchy, on the other hand, great care should be
    taken of the poor, and lucrative offices should go to them; if
    any of the wealthy classes insult them, the offender should be
    punished more severely than if he had wronged one of his own
    Aristotle, Politics 5:8
    Summary: In setting tax law, Jewish law gives decisionmaking power to those who will have to pay for those decisions. It cautions that fear of heaven is necessary – a religious
    commitment to seeing the welfare of each other member of
    the community as being as important as one’s own. Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    D. Additional Factors
    Text 8
    Our Rabbis taught: In the case of a caravan traveling in the desert upon whom comes a troop bent on plunder, they calculate the ransom payment according to the wealth each carries,
    not per capita. If they hire a guide to lead them, they calculate
    according to the number of people as well [for going astray in
    the desert puts lives in danger], provided that they do not deviate from the usual custom of donkey drivers.
    Bava Kama 116b
    Text 9
    They collect according to the proximity of houses to the wall:
    Rabbeinu Tam explains this to mean that the poor who live
    close to the wall should give more than the poor who live distant from it. Similarly, the wealthy who live close to the wall
    should give more than the wealthy who live distant from it.
    The wealthy who live distant from the wall should give more
    than the poor who live close to it, since the city collects according to wealth.
    Tosafot, ad loc
    Class discussion:
    How might the various criteria set out in the last few texts be
    applied to Oakwood’s case?
    Which of the various suggestions of the city manager would Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    best accord with these rabbinic views that make benefit the
    main criterion?
    How would the use of this criterion affect the way we would
    tax for schools? For parks? For upkeep of roads?
    Would it make sense for Oakwood to put several levies on the
    ballot? Or should it raise money for its general fund?
    Text 10
    The aqueduct, the city walls and its towers and all the needs of
    Jerusalem came from the remainder of the treasury chamber.
    Shekalim 4:2
    Class discussion:
    How do we find this principle at work in modern taxes? How
    might it apply in Oakwood’s case?
    Summary: Jewish law sees other factors as worthy of consideration in setting taxes. There are times when cost should be
    apportioned according to the benefit each derives. There are
    times when a uniform per capita contribution makes sense, as
    well. Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    E. Case Study – Seeking a Correct Balance
    Case Study 2
    Text 11
    When I came to the city where I had been invited as rabbi,
    there was a dispute over the appointment of an executive secretary. The city had 50 taxpaying householders. Among them
    was a certain man, who, together with his two sons and his
    two sons-in-law, had great wealth.
    This family gave 3/5 of the taxes of the city; the rest of the fifty
    gave only the remaining 2/5. For instance: if the congregation
    needed to pay out 50 gold pieces, these five householders contributed 30 gold pieces and the remaining 45 householders only contributed 20…
    This particular man and his family did not want the candidate Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    for secretary that the rest of the congregation wanted and so
    vetoed his appointment. The rest of the congregation brought
    their complaint before me.
    [The family was operating under the assumption that since
    they paid a majority of the taxes (since being wealthy, they
    shouldered a much larger burden), they had a veto power over
    this appointment.]
    Class Question:
    The rich man is giving the majority of the money in this community. Perhaps he may not dictate whom everyone should
    accept, but should he not at least have a veto?
    Is it fair or just that he should be forced to pay the majority of
    the money for someone to whom he objects? Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    Text 12
    What the founders ordained was well thought-out: one needs
    the majority of the people and the majority of the wealth, so
    that a poor majority cannot compel the minority of the
    wealthy, nor can the wealthy minority compel the majority
    who are poor. Rather, there must be an accord of the poor majority of the people with the wealthy minority.
    [Let them] collect the salary of a rabbi, cantor or executive secretary in two parts, half to be paid by a head tax and half to be
    paid according to wealth. The salary of the secretary was to be
    50 gold pieces. 25 would be paid by a head tax – each of the 45
    householders would pay a half gold piece, and the rich man
    and his family, five people in all, would pay just two and a half
    gold pieces. For the remaining 25 gold pieces, the rich man and
    his family would pay 3/5, or 15 gold pieces, and the rest would
    pay 10. Thus, since the rich man and his family would be paying
    a total of 17.5 gold pieces, he would not be paying a majority of
    the money, and thus he had no veto power. Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    Rabbi Menachem Mendel ben Avraham Krochmal (1600-1661), ShuT
    Tsemach Tsedek 1 (partially paraphrased)
    In what way did the Tsemach Tsedek address the problem
    that Aristotle had noted?
    Summary: We see in an actual case one effective way in which
    the varying interests were balanced so that the wealthy were
    not subjected to envious confiscation nor were those on a
    lower economic level left to be dominated by the rich.
    F. Primacy of Custom
    Text 13
    In a place in which there is the custom or the desire to levy a
    single tax for all needs together, the method of taxation
    should be essentially according to wealth. For according to Torah law, all we collect for all these needs to be according to
    wealth [not on a per capita basis].
    SHuT Tsits Eliezer, 22, p. 122
    Text 14
    Scholars found the multitude of methods [derived from Tal-Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    mudic law, “law of the non-Jewish kingdom, and from partnership law in particular] insufficient to overcome the wide array
    of tax law problems with which they and the communal leaders were confronted. Application of the private law rules of
    partnership offered no comprehensive basis for solving the
    myriad tax law problems that arose and belonged, by their
    very nature, to the field of public law – not only because partnership law offered no analogy for the overwhelming majority
    of tax law matters but also because a legal arrangement governing relationships between two or three partners was often
    unsuited to regulating the legal relationships between all the
    different units comprising the community. They found the way
    to settling most of the laws of taxation through using the authority vested in the public to make enactments and by means
    of the legal source of custom.
    Menachem Elon, “Taxation” in Public and Administrative Law; Conflict of
    Laws, p. 667
    Text 15
    And they sent and called him, and Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spoke to Rehoboam saying,
    “Your father made our yoke hard. Now you lighten your father’s hard work and his heavy yoke which he placed upon us,
    and we shall serve you.” And he said to them “Go away for
    three days, then return again to me.” And the people departed.
    Taxation with Taxation with
    Representation Representation

    Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    And King Rehoboam took counsel with the elders who had attended Solomon his father while he was yet alive saying:
    “What counsel do you give me to reply to this people?”
    And they spoke to him saying, “If you will be a servant to this
    people today, and you will minister to them and you will respond to them and speak kind words to them, then they will
    be your servants for all times. But he disregarded the counsel
    of the elders who advised him, and he took counsel with the
    young men who had grown up with him and who were attending him.
    And he said to them: “What do you advise that we reply to this
    people who have spoken to me saying, ‘Lighten the burden
    which your father has placed upon us’?” And the young men
    that had grown up with him spoke to him saying: “So shall you
    say to this people who have spoken to you saying, ‘Your father
    has made our yoke heavy, and you make it lighter for us,’ thus
    shall you speak to them, My little finger is thicker than my father’s loins. And now, where my father did burden you with a
    heavy yoke, I shall add to your yoke; my father flogged you
    with whips, but I will flog you with scorpions.”
    … And all of Israel saw that the king did not listen to them,
    and they replied to the king saying: “What share do we have in
    David? And no heritage in Jesse’s son. To your homes, O Israel!
    Now see your house, David,” and the Israelites went to their
    I Kings 12:6-11, 15 Elections 2012 -A Jewish Perspective
    Text 16
    The general principle is: Any law that a king decrees to be universally applicable, and not merely applying to one person, is
    not considered robbery. But whenever he takes from one person alone in a manner that does not conform to a known law,
    but rather seizes the property from the person arbitrarily, it is
    considered to be robbery.
    Rambam, Hilchot Gezeila Va’aveida 5:14
    Text 17
    All the parties concerned have to consider…the willingness of
    the citizens to pay the taxes levied. Ignoring this will lead to
    large-scale nonpayment of the taxes, limited only by the ability
    of the authorities to police and enforce their tax collections.
    Experience in many different countries and during vastly different periods of history has shown that this ability is limited
    whenever the taxpayer sees justification for the nonpayment
    of taxes.
    Meir Tamari, The Challenge of Wealth, p. 230
    Social Security
    Tax Policy
    P r e s id e n t
    C a p i t a l i s t
    E l e c t i o n
    Taxation with Taxation with
    Representation Representation

    Communal Burden Fairly
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  3. Yesterday, while I was at work, my sister stole
    my iphone and tested to see if it can survive a forty foot drop, just so she
    can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now destroyed and
    she has 83 views. I know this is totally off topic but I had to share it with someone!

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